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Re: RE: Hydrogen Peroxide Turbine Engine
Posted by: ROBERT M. ()
Date: June 21, 2009 08:58AM

Hello Kevin, et al:

The U.S. Navy produced the Mark 16 and 17 hydrogen peroxide powered torpedoes. The
Mark 16 was for submarines and the Mark 17 was for destroyers.
It was a single-speed,21" diameter, 21 1/2' long torpedo. It was a gas-steam torpedo in which hydrogen peroxide (Navol), instead of compressed air, supplies the oxygen required for combustion of the fuel. This use of Navol rather than air allows the torpedo to carry as much explosive as the Mark 15 and to have a greater high-speed range , while not exceeding the Mark 14 in size.
The head section of this torpedo is similar to that of the Mark 15. The second or flask section contains a small compressed-air flask, a fuel (alcohol) tank, a water compartment, and a Navol tank --the last completely surrounded by the water tank.
The main engine, valves, and control devices are located conventionally in the midship section and afterbody.
The source of the oxygen and part of the water for the combustion cycle of this torpedo is the Navol, which is a solution of hydrogen peroxide (H202 70%) in water. Hydrogen peroxide, passing through a chamber containing a catalyst (Anodized lead screens), decomposes with evolution of heat, to form water (steam) and oxygen. The oxygen unites with the fuel (alcohol) in the combustion pot,
combustion being initiated by an black powder igniter of conventional type. Th e
resulting hot gases mix with steam and drive the main engine turbines. Part of the steam comes from the breakdown of the H202 and part from additional water from the water compartment which is sprayed into the combustion pot to control the temperature.
By using Navol, the torpedoes require no air except (1) to force fuel, Navol, and
water from their storage compartments to the combustion pot, (2) to drive the gyro, and (3) to operate the steering controls. As no air is fed to the combustion pot, no nitrogen is present in the exhaust to rise to the surface and
leave the customary wake. There is, however, a small amount of nonsoluble gas resulting from the combustion of alcohol.which is forced out of the exhaust, leaving a very small wake that is practically invisible except in flat, calm water.
The main engine consists of two turbines with reduction gearing, similar in principle to the engine in a Mark 15 torpedo. but differing radically in a
mechanical detail. The turbine axes are horizontal instead of vertical, for which reason this engine is referred to as a "horizontal" or "H" engine, and
spur and herringbone gears rather than bevel gears are used for speed reduction.
The Mark 16 torpedo remained in service until 1975. When Above water torpedoes were removed from destroyers, the Mark 17 Navol torpedoes went with them

X-1 - the U.S. Navy's first one-of-a-kind midget submarine, was launched on Long Island in September, 1955, by the Fairchild Aircraft Company, with closed-cycle hydrogen peroxide/diesel plant. It was intended for shallow-water commando operations.
Displacing 36 tons submerged on a length of some 50 feet, X-1 was powered by a
heavily modified diesel engine with a small battery-powered electric motor as a backup. On the surface, the ambient atmosphere charged the engine, but under-water, the oxygen required for combustion was derived from the catalytic
decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in a reaction chamber. Both engine exhaust and water condensate were compressed and discharged overboard. 400 gallons of 70% peroxide could be stored in a flexible polyvinyl-chloride bag forward, and the craft could accommodate four crewmembers.

Hope this helps,

ROBERT M.

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