Oliver Loudon Gordon, RN

Born  26 Jan 1896
Died  30 Jan 1973(77)


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Ranks

15 Jan 1909 Cadet
15 Sep 1913 Mid.
15 Sep 1915 A/S.Lt.
15 Mar 1916 S.Lt.
12 Apr 1917 Lt.
15 Apr 1925 Lt.Cdr.
30 Jun 1931 Cdr.
30 Jun 1939 Capt.

Retired: 10 Jul 1948


Decorations

12 Aug 1934 MVO
22 Jan 1946 CB

Warship Commands listed for Oliver Loudon Gordon, RN


ShipRankTypeFromTo
HMS Maidstone (F 44)Capt.Submarine Depot Ship25 Sep 194010 Mar 1941
HMS Exeter (68)Capt.Heavy cruiser11 Mar 19411 Mar 1942

Career information

We currently have no career / biographical information on this officer.

Events related to this officer

Heavy cruiser HMS Exeter (68)


22 Mar 1941
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) conducted trials off Plymouth. (1)

24 Mar 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
With her refit and reconstruction completed HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) departed Plymouth for Scapa Flow. She was escorted by HMS Kelly (Capt. L.F.A.V.N. Mountbatten, GCVO, RN), HMS Kashmir (Cdr. H.A. King, RN), HMS Kelvin (Cdr. J.H. Allison, DSO, RN) and HMS Jackal (Lt.Cdr. R.McC.P. Jonas, DSC, RN). (2)

26 Mar 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Scapa Flow to begin a port refit work-up period. (1)

2 Apr 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) conducted exercises at Scapa Flow. (3)

3 Apr 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) conducted exercises at Scapa Flow. (3)

4 Apr 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) conducted gunnery exercises at Scapa Flow. (3)

7 Apr 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) and HMS Galatea (Capt. E.W.B. Sim, RN) conducted exercises off Scapa Flow. (3)

9 Apr 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) conducted exercises at Scapa Flow. (3)

10 Apr 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) conducted A/S exercises at Scapa Flow with FFS Minerve (Lt. P.M. Sonneville). (3)

11 Apr 1941
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) conducted gunnery exercises at Scapa Flow. (3)

14 Apr 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) conducted gunnery exercises at Scapa Flow. (3)

15 Apr 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) conducted exercises at Scapa Flow. (3)

16 Apr 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) conducted HA gunnery exercises at Scapa Flow. (3)

17 Apr 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) conducted exercises at Scapa Flow. (3)

21 Apr 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
Around 1400 hours HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) returned to Scapa Flow escorted by HMS Anthony (Lt.Cdr. J.M. Hodges, RN). (3)

23 Apr 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) conducted exercises at Scapa Flow. (3)

26 Apr 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) and HMS Nigeria (Capt. J.G.L. Dundas, RN) departed Scapa Flow for the Northern Patrol. (3)

26 Apr 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
For the daily positions of HMS Exeter during the period of 26 April to 13 May 1941 see the map below.

4 May 1941
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Hvalfjord, Iceland. (4)

5 May 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
After fuelling, HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN), departed Hvalfjord for the Denmark Strait partrol. (4)

11 May 1941
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Hvalfjord, Iceland from the Denmark Strait patrol.

After fuelling she departed later the same day for Scapa Flow. (4)

13 May 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Scapa Flow. (4)

16 May 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
During the night of 16/17 May 1941, HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN), conducted exercises off Scapa Flow. (4)

19 May 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) conducted exercises at Scapa Flow. The included A/S exercises with HMS P 31 (Lt. J.B.de B. Kershaw, RN). (4)

20 May 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) departed Scapa Flow for Greenock. (4)

21 May 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Greenock. (4)

22 May 1941

Convoy WS 8B

Convoy from the Clyde to Aden where it was dissolved.
Departure date: 22 May 1941.
Arrival date: 4 July 1941.

The following merchant ships (mostly troopships) were part of this convoy;
British:
Abosso (11330 GRT, built 1935), Almanzora (15551 GRT, built 1914), Duchess of Richmond (20022 GRT, built 1928), Georgic (27759 GRT, built 1932), Martand (7967 GRT, built 1925), Orduna (15507 GRT, built 1914).

Dutch
Christian Huygens (16287 GRT, built 1927).

The aircraft carrier HMS Argus (Capt. T.O. Bulteel, RN) was also part of the convoy. She was to proceed to Gibraltar to deliver replacement aircraft. She detached from the convoy on 27 May 1941. In the morning of 28 May 1941, she was joined by the destroyers HMS Fearless (Cdr. A.F. Pugsley, RN), HMS Foresight (Cdr. J.S.C. Salter, RN) and HMS Foxhound (Cdr. G.H. Peters, DSC, RN) which escorted her to Gibraltar.

Escort was initially provided by the following warships;
Heavy cruiser HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN), light (AA) cruiser HMS Cairo (A/Capt. I.R.H. Black, RN), HMS Cossack (Capt. P.L. Vian, DSO, RN), HMS Maori (Cdr. G.H. Stokes, DSC, RN), HMS Zulu (Cdr. H.R. Graham, DSO, RN), ORP Piorun (Cdr. E.J.S. Plawski), HMCS Ottawa (Cdr. E.R. Mainguy, RCN), HMCS Restigouche (Lt.Cdr. H.N. Lay, RCN) and the escort destroyer HMS Eridge (Lt.Cdr. W.F.N. Gregory-Smith, RN).

On 26 May 1941, all escorts were detached except HMS Exeter.

On 2 June 1941, while approaching Freetown, the destroyers HMS Boreas (Lt.Cdr. D.H. Maitland-Makgill Crichton, DSC, RN) and HMS Duncan (Lt.Cdr. A.N. Rowell, RN) joined the convoy. The next day the corvette HMS Marguerite (Lt.Cdr. A.N. Blundell, RNR) also joined.

The convoy arrived at Freetown on 4 June 1941.

The convoy, less Abosso and Christiaan Huygens, departed Freetown on 6 June. It was escorted by the Exeter and had a local escort of the destroyers HMS Duncan, HMS Boreas and HMS Highlander (Cdr. S. Boucher, RN). The destroyers were detached on 8 June.

The convoy arrived at Durban, South Africa on 20 June 1941.

The convoy departed Durban for Aden on 23 June. The Dutch Nieuw Zeeland (11069 GRT, built 1928) had joined the convoy at Durban. Escort was still provided by HMS Exeter.

The convoy was dissolved off Aden on 4 July 1941 and the ships proceeded to their destination independently.

22 May 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
For the daily positions of HMS Exeter during the period of 22 May to 4 July 1941 see the map below.

4 Jun 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Freetown. (5)

6 Jun 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) departed Freetown still escorting convoy WS 8B. (5)

20 Jun 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Durban, South Africa. (5)

23 Jun 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) departed Durban still escorting convoy WS 8B. (5)

4 Jul 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Aden. (6)

6 Jul 1941
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) departed Aden for Mombasa.

For the daily positions of HMS Exeter during the period of 6 to 18 July 1941 see the map below.

(6)

11 Jul 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Mombasa from Aden. (6)

13 Jul 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) departed Mombasa for Durban. (6)

18 Jul 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Durban from Mombasa. (6)

22 Jul 1941

Convoy CM 14.

Convoy from Durban to Aden where it was dissolved.
Departure date: 22 July 1941.
Arrival date: 5 August 1941.

The following merchant ships (mostly troopships) were part of this convoy;
British:
City of Canterbury (8331 GRT, built 1922), Dilwara (11080 GRT, built 1936), Dunera (11162 GRT, built 1937), Llandaff Castle (10799 GRT, built 1926) and Nova Scotia (6796 GRT, built 1926)

Belgian:
Elisabethville (8351 GRT, built 1922)

Dutch:
Nieuw Holland (11066 GRT, built 1927)

Escort was provided by the British heavy cruiser HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN). (7)

22 Jul 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
For the daily positions of HMS Exeter during the period of 22 July 1941 to 10 August 1941 see the map below.

5 Aug 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Aden. (8)

6 Aug 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) departed Aden for Bombay. (8)

10 Aug 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Bombay from Aden. (8)

11 Aug 1941
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) departed Bombay to patrol off the Persian Gulf.

For the daily positions of HMS Exeter during the period of 11 to 17 August 1941 see the map below.

(8)

17 Aug 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) returned to Bombay from patrol. (8)

18 Aug 1941
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) departed Bombay for patrol.

For the daily positions of HMS Exeter during the period of 18 to 26 August 1941 see the map below.

(8)

26 Aug 1941
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Aden.

She departed for Durban later the same day after having fuelled. Also a court martial was held on board. During the passage to Durban she was escorting the troop transport Mauretania (35739 GRT, built 1939).

For the daily positions of HMS Exeter during the period of 26 August to 3 September 1941 see the map below.

(8)

3 Sep 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Durban. (9)

11 Sep 1941

Convoy CM 14.

Convoy from Durban to Aden where it was dissolved.
Departure date: 11 September 1941.
Arrival date: 23 September 1941.

The following merchant ships were part of this convoy. The five largest ships also carried troops;
British:
Diomed (10374 GRT, built 1922), Dunera (11162 GRT, built 1937), Indian Prince (8587 GRT, built 1926), Manchester Port (7071 GRT, built 1935), Nea Hellas (16991 GRT, built 1922), Phemius (7406 GRT, built 1921) and Rangitiki (16698 GRT, built 1929)

Dutch:
Indrapoera (10825 GRT, built 1925), Nigerstroom (4639 GRT, built 1939) and Voldendam (15434 GRT, built 1922)

Escort was provided by the British heavy cruiser HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN). (9)

11 Sep 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
For the daily positions of HMS Exeter during the period of 11 September to 1 October 1941 see the map below.

23 Sep 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Aden. (9)

26 Sep 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) departed Aden for Mombasa. (9)

1 Oct 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Mombasa. (10)

4 Oct 1941

Convoy MA 1/1.

Convoy from Mombasa to Aden.
Departure date: 4 October 1941.
Arrival date: 12 October 1941.

The following merchant ships were part of this convoy;
British:
Ascanius (10048 GRT, built 1910) (joined at sea on 7 October), Manchester Port (7071 GRT, built 1935), Salween (7063 GRT, built 1937) and Yoma (8131 GRT, built 1928).

Ascanius joined the convoy at sea on 7 October 1941.

Escort was provided by the British heavy cruiser HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN). HMS Exeter departed Mombasa on 5 October 1941. (11)

5 Oct 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
For the daily positions of HMS Exeter during the period of 5 to 24 October 1941 see the map below.

5 Oct 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
For the daily positions of HMS Exeter during the period of 5 to 24 October 1941 see the map below.

5 Oct 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
For the daily positions of HMS Exeter during the period of 5 to 24 October 1941 see the map below.

12 Oct 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Aden. (10)

13 Oct 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) departed Aden for Bombay. (10)

18 Oct 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Bombay from Aden. (10)

22 Oct 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) departed Bombay for Colombo. (10)

24 Oct 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Colombo. (10)

25 Oct 1941
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) is docked in a graving dock at Colombo. (10)

29 Oct 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) is undocked. (10)

3 Nov 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) conducted exercises off Colombo. (12)

11 Nov 1941
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) departed Colombo for a visit to Malé, Maldives.

For the daily positions of HMS Exeter during the period of 11 to 19 November 1941 see the map below.

(13)

12 Nov 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) anchored off Malé, Maldives. She departed later the same day for Trincomalee. (12)

14 Nov 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Trincomalee. (12)

16 Nov 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) departed Trincomalee for Calcutta. (12)

19 Nov 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Calcutta from Trincomalee. (12)

26 Nov 1941
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) departed Calcutta to provide cover for two ships with troops that were to proceed from Calcutta to Rangoon. These two ships were the Karoa (7009 GRT, built 1915) and Kutsang (5847 GRT, built 1922). These ships had departed Calcutta on 26 and 27 November 1941 respectiveley. They arrived at Rangoon on 29 and 30 November 1941 respectiveley.

For the daily positions of HMS Exeter during the period of 26 November to 3 December 1941 see the map below.

(13)

3 Dec 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) returned to Calcutta. (14)

6 Dec 1941
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) departed Calcutta for Rangoon. She was to provide escort to the merchant vessel Karoa (7009 GRT, built 1915) that was to take troops and stores to Rangoon.

For the daily positions of HMS Exeter during the period of 6 to 10 December 1941 see the map below.

(15)

8 Dec 1941
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) parted company with the merchant vessel Karoa (7009 GRT, built 1915) that she was escorting to Rangoon. HMS Exeter is ordered to proceed to Singapore with all despatch to join the two capital ships that had recently arrived there. (15)

10 Dec 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Singapore. (15)

11 Dec 1941
With both captical ships lost, HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN), departed Singapore for Colombo via the Sunda Strait.

For the daily positions of HMS Exeter during the period of 11 to 17 December 1941 see the map below.

(15)

17 Dec 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Colombo. (15)

21 Dec 1941
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) departed Colombo to proceed towards the Sunda Stait to make rendez-vous with the transport Erinpura (5143 GRT, built 1911) that had departed Singapore on 19 December 1941 with survivors from HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse as well as women and children.

The Erinpura was escorted by HMS Dragon (Capt. R.J. Shaw, MBE, RN), HMS Durban (Capt. P.G.L. Cazalet, DSC, RN) and HMAS Vampire (Cdr. W.T.A. Moran, RAN) until 24 December when HMS Exeter took over. They arrived at Colombo on 27 December 1941. (15)

21 Dec 1941
For the daily positions of HMS Exeter during the period of 21 to 27 December 1941 see the map below.

31 Dec 1941 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) departed Colombo to proceed to Addu Atoll (Port T) to join the escort of convoy DM 1 at sea. (15)

2 Jan 1942 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Addu Atoll (Port T). (16)

13 Jan 1942 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Singapore as part of the escort of convoy DM 1. (16)

14 Jan 1942 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) departed Singapore for Batavia, Netherlands East Indies. (17)

15 Jan 1942
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) arrived at Batavia, Netherlands East Indies from Singapore. She departed later the same day to make rendez-vous with convoy BM 10 at sea (see the event ' Convoy BM 10 ' for 8 January 1942). (16)

19 Jan 1942

Convoy BM 11.

Convoy from Bombay to Singapore.
Departure date: 19 January 1942.
Arrival date: 28 January 1942.

This convoy was made up of the following ships;
British troop ships; Duchess of Bedford (20123 GRT, built 1928), Empress of Japan (26032 GRT, built 1930)

British merchant Empire Star (13479 GRT, built 1935).

American troop ships; Wakefield (24289 GRT, built 1931) and West Piont (26454 GRT, built 1940).

Escort was initially provided from 19 January to 22 January 1942 by the British light cruiser HMS Caledon (A/Capt. H.J. Haynes, DSO, DSC, RN).

On 22 January 1942, HMS Glasgow (Capt. H. Hickling, DSO, RN) took over from HMS Caledon in position 05°10'N, 80°09'E.

On 25 January 1942, HMS Dragon (Capt. R.J. Shaw, MBE, RN) and HMS Durban (Capt. P.G.L. Cazalet, DSC, RN) joined the convoy in the afternoon.

On 27 January 1942, HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) and the destroyer HMS Encounter (Lt.Cdr. E.V.St J. Morgan, RN) took over shortly after dawn from HMS Glasgow in position 06°32'S, 102°29'E. It appears that HMS Exeter parted company with the convoy on 28 January and proceeded to Batavia.

The destroyers HMS Electra (Cdr. C.W. May, RN) and HMS Express (Lt.Cdr. F.J. Cartwright, RN) also joined during the final approach of the convoy to Singapore. [But the exact moment they joined is currently not known to us.]

The convoy arrived at Singapore on 29 January 1940. (16)

23 Jan 1942

Convoy BM 12.

Convoy from Bombay to Singapore.
Departure date: 23 January 1942.
Arrival date: 4 February 1942.

This convoy was made up of the following ships;
British troop ships; Devonshire (11275 GRT, built 1939), Empress of Asia (16909 GRT, built 1913).

French troop ship (under British control) Felix Roussel (17083 GRT, built 1930)

and the Dutch transport Plancius (5955 GRT, built 1923).

The convoy initially proceeded unescorted.

On 26 January, the British sloop HMS Falmouth (Cdr. U.H.R. James, RN) joined the convoy in position 07°53'N, 76°23'E.

On 27 January, the British light cruiser HMS Emerald (Capt. F.C. Flynn, RN) joined the convoy in position 04°30'N, 78°15'E. HMS Falmouth parted company with the convoy at dusk.

On 28 January, the convoy made rendez-vous with convoy DM 2 which was made up of the following ships;
British troopships Dunera (11162 GRT, built 1937), Empress of Australia (21833 GRT, built 1914) and Warwick Castle (20107 GRT, built 1930) and the British transports City of Canterbury (8331 GRT, built 1922), City of Pretoria (8049 GRT, built 1937), Malancha (8124 GRT, built 1937) and Troilus (7422 GRT, built 1921). This convoy was escorted by the British armed merchant cruiser HMS Ranchi (Capt.(Retd.) Sir J.M. Alleyne, DSO, DSC, RN) which then parted company.

On 31 January, the British light cruiser HMS Danae (Capt. F.J. Butler, MBE, RN) and the Dutch light cruiser HrMs Java (Capt. P.B.M van Straelen, RNN) joined the convoy in position 05°05'S, 94°00'E after which HMS Emerald parted company with the convoy.

On 1 February, the Indian sloop HMIS Sutlej (Capt. P.A. Mare, RIN) and the Australian sloop HMAS Yarra (Cdr. W.H. Harrington, RAN) joined the convoy.

On 2 February, the British heavy cruiser HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) joined around 0800 hours and a little over two hours later the British destroyer HMS Jupiter (Lt.Cdr. N.V.J.T. Thew, RN) and the Australian destroyer HMAS Vampire (Cdr. W.T.A. Moran, RAN) also joined the convoy.

On the morning of 3 February the British destroyer HMS Encounter (Lt.Cdr. E.V.St J. Morgan, RN) joined. Later the same day HMAS Vampire split off from the convoy with the part of the convoy that was to proceed to Batavia. These were all the ships that had been in convoy DM 2 except the City of Canterbury which went to Singapore.

Around 0200 hours on 4 February 1942, HrMs Java parted company with the convoy. Shortly before noon the convoy was attacked by Japanese aircraft and the Empress of Asia was straddled. Around 2130/4, HMS Exeter, HMS Jupiter and HMS Encounter parted company to intercept Japanese warships that were reported to the north of Banka Strait. HMAS Hobart (Capt. H.L. Howden, CBE, RAN) was ordered to join them there. They did not find any Japanese ships and proceeded to Batavia where they arrived on 6 February.

The convoy arrived at Singapore shortly after noon on 5 February 1942 but not before a heavy enemy air attack was carried out. The Empress of Asia was set on fire, the Felix Roussel was also hit and the City of Canterbury had her steering gear damaged. (18)

25 Jan 1942 (position 0.00, 0.00)
Most likely, HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN), arrived at Batavia today. It appears she must have sailed later on the same day, most likely after having fuelled. She made rendez-vous with convoy BM 11 west of the Sunda Strait the next day.

29 Jan 1942
Most likely, HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN), arrived at Batavia today.

1 Feb 1942
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN), HMS Jupiter (Lt.Cdr. N.V.J.T. Thew, RN) and HMAS Vampire (Cdr. W.T.A. Moran, RAN) departed Batavia escorting the US troop ships Wakefield (24289 GRT, built 1931) and West Point (26454 GRT, built 1940) westwards through the Sunda Strait.

After the US ships had been released the warships joined the escort of convoy BM 12.

3 Feb 1942 (position 0.00, 0.00)

Convoy JS 1.

Convoy from Colombo to Batavia .
Departure date: 3 February 1942.
Arrival date: 14 February 1942.

This convoy was made up of the following ships;
British transports; Adastrus (7905 GRT, built 1923), Alice Moller (4986 GRT, built 1914), Filleigh (4856 GRT, built 1928), Lulworth Hill (7628 GRT, built 1940), Modasa (9070 GRT, built 1921), Prominent (2232 GRT, built 1918) and Yoma (8131 GRT, built 1928).

Norwegian transports Hai Lee (3616 GRT, built 1934) and Hermion (5202 GRT, built 1937).

The Alice Moller had to return to Colombo with defects.

The convoy sailed from Colombo on 3 February 1942 and was escorted initially by the British heavy cruiser HMS Cornwall (Capt. P.C.W. Manwaring, RN) and the Australian minesweepers HMAS Bathurst (Lt.Cdr. A.V. Bunyan, RANR(S)) and HMAS Lismore (Lt.Cdr. S.H. Crawford, RANR(S)).

The Australian minesweepers parted company with the convoy on 5 Februaury. HMS Cornwall was relieved by HMAS Hobart (Capt. H.L. Howden, CBE, RAN) on 10 February in position 05°40'S, 93°00'E.

On 11 Februry 1942, the British heavy cruiser HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) apparently joined the escort and remained with it until 13 February.

On 12 February 1942, the British destroyer HMS Electra (Cdr. C.W. May, RN) and the Indian sloop HMIS Jumna (Cdr. W.R. Shewring, RIN) joined the convoy.

On 13 February 1942 the convoy was split up and the Filleigh Lulworth Hill, Yoma, Hai Lee and Hermion arrived at Oosthaven, Sumatra. They were escorted by HMAS Hobart and HMIS Jumna. HMIS Jumna remained at Oosthaven to provide A/S protection for that port together with the Australian minesweepers HMAS Goulburn (Lt. B. Paul, RANR(S)) and HMAS Burnie (T/A/Lt.Cdr. G.E. Gough, RANR(S)).

The other ships of the convoy, the Adastrus, Modasa, and Prominent arrived at Batavia on 14 February 1942 escorted by HMS Electra. (16)

5 Feb 1942
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN), HMAS Hobart (Capt. H.L. Howden, CBE, RAN), HMS Jupiter (Lt.Cdr. N.V.J.T. Thew, RN) and HMS Encounter (Lt.Cdr. E.V.St J. Morgan, RN) are sighted to the north-east of the Sunda Strait by the Japanese submarine RO-34 which fired four torpedoes at HMS Encounter but no hits were obtained. The submarine was hunted briefly but managed to escape.

6 Feb 1942 (position 0.00, 0.00)
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN), HMAS Hobart (Capt. H.L. Howden, CBE, RAN), HMS Jupiter (Lt.Cdr. N.V.J.T. Thew, RN) and HMS Encounter (Lt.Cdr. E.V.St J. Morgan, RN) arrived at Batavia.

20 Feb 1942 (position 0.00, 0.00)

Convoy SJ 5.

Convoy from Batavia to Colombo.
Departure date: 20 February 1942.
Dispersal date: 22 February 1942 / 1230 hours.

This convoy was made up of the following ships;
British transports; Angby (767 GRT, built 1913), Filleigh (4856 GRT, built 1928), Jalakrishna (4991 GRT, built 1937), Lulworth Hill (7628 GRT, built 1940), Silverlarch (5064 GRT, built 1924) and Yoma (8131 GRT, built 1928).

Norwegian transport Hai Lee (3616 GRT, built 1934)

The convoy sailed from Batavia on 20 February 1942 and was escorted by the British heavy cruiser HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN). It appears that the convoy was also escorted for part of the way (most likely during the passage of the Sunda Strait) by the British destroyer HMS Stronghold (Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) G.R. Pretor-Pinney, RN) and the Indian sloop HMIS Jumna (Cdr. W.R. Shewring, RIN). (16)

24 Feb 1942
HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN) retuned to Batavia from escort duty with convoy SJ 5. While at Batavia, HMS Exeter, was lightly damaged during heavy Japanese air attacks. (19)

25 Feb 1942
At 1500 hours, HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN), HMAS Perth (Capt. H.M.L. Waller, DSO and Bar, RAN), HMS Electra (Cdr. C.W. May, RN), HMS Encounter (Lt.Cdr. E.V.St J. Morgan, RN) and HMS Jupiter (Lt.Cdr. N.V.J.P. Thew, RN) departed Batavia for Surabaya where they were to join Dutch Rear-Admiral Doorman's Eastern Striking Force.

HMAS Hobart (Capt. H.L. Howden, CBE, RAN) was also ordered to sail with these ships but she had not completed fuelling yet as the oiler RFA War Sirdar (5542 GRT, built 1920, (master) Cdr. M.W. Westlake, RNR) had been damaged in a Japanese air attack. (20)

26 Feb 1942
At 0330 hours, HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN), HMAS Perth (Capt. H.M.L. Waller, DSO and Bar, RAN), HMS Electra (Cdr. C.W. May, RN), HMS Encounter (Lt.Cdr. E.V.St J. Morgan, RN) and HMS Jupiter (Lt.Cdr. N.V.J.P. Thew, RN) arrive at Surabaya from Batavia where they joined Dutch Rear-Admiral Doorman's Eastern Striking Force. (20)

27 Feb 1942

Battle of the Java Sea.

Prelude to the battle.

Japan had opened the war in the Far East on 7 December 1941 with their surprise attack on the American naval base at Pearl Harbour. At the same time they launched attacks on the Philippines and Malaya. These attacks were followed by attacks on the Dutch East Indies.

By the end of December 1941 the Americans decided to abandon the Philippines as a naval base and on 30 January 1942, Singapore Dockyard was closed down by the British. This was followed by the British Army retiring from the Malayan penisula towards that base.

On 3 February 1942, Surabaya and Malang on the main Dutch Island of Java were bombed for the first time. By mid-February the Japanese had conquered British and Dutch Borneo and the Dutch islands of Celebes, Ceram and Ambon. These conquests gave them sea and air control over the Makassar Strait and the Molucca Passage.

The Allies soon realised that the forces at their disposal were not able to stop the Japanese advance. The only thing they could do was to delay the Japanese advance as long as possible.

Singapore and it’s naval base fell to the Japanese on 15 February 1942. That very day the Japanese landed on Sumatra and they soon also controlled the Karimata Channel and Gaspar Strait. Later they also had more or less the control over the important Sunda Strait, the main entry channel to the Java Sea.

On 25 February 1942 the Japanese captured Bali Island, to the east of Java and this gave them also control over the eastern exits of the Java Sea to the Indian Ocean. On this day also reports were received of massive Japanese shipping movements in the Celebes Sea with the apparent objective to invade Java. Also on the 25th the Japanese landed on Bawean Island, just 85 miles north of Surabaya.

Formation of the Combined Striking Force.

Given the reports of the Japanese shipping movements and their expected arrival off Java on 27 February, the Dutch Vice-Admiral Helfrich ordered that the Eastern Striking Force at Surabaya was to be reinforced by all available cruisers and destroyers that were then at Tandjong Priok (Batavia).

At that moment the Eastern Striking Force was made up of the Dutch light cruisers HrMs De Ruyter (Cdr. E.E.B. Lacomblé, RNN and flagship of Rear-Admiral K.W.F.M. Doorman, RNN) and HrMs Java (Capt. P.B.M van Straelen, RNN), the Dutch destroyers HrMs Witte de With (Lt.Cdr. P. Schotel, RNN), HrMs Kortenaer (Lt.Cdr. A. Kroese, RNN) and the US destroyers USS John D. Edwards (Lt.Cdr. H.E. Eccles, USN), USS Parrott (Lt.Cdr. J.N. Hughes, USN) and USS Pillsbury (Lt.Cdr. H.C. Pound, USN). The force had been reinforced on the 24th by the US heavy cruiser USS Houston (Capt. A.H. Rooks, USN) and the US destroyers USS Paul Jones (Lt.Cdr. J.J. Hourihan, USN), USS Alden (Lt.Cdr. L.E. Coley, USN), USS John D. Ford (Lt.Cdr. J.E. Cooper, USN) and USS Pope (Lt.Cdr. W.C. Blinn, USN) which came from Tjilatjap on Java’s south coast.

The following ships arrived at Surabaya from Tandjong Priok (Batavia) on the 26th. The British heavy cruiser HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN), the Australian light cruiser HMAS Perth (Capt. H.M.L. Waller, DSO and Bar, RAN) and the British destroyers HMS Electra (Cdr. C.W. May, RN), HMS Encounter (Lt.Cdr. E.V.St J. Morgan, RN) and HMS Jupiter (Lt.Cdr. N.V.J.P. Thew, RN). From this date the Eastern Striking Force was now called the Combined Striking Force.

Formation of the Western Striking Force.

Some ships remained in Batavia and these were formed into the Western Striking Force which comprised the Australian light cruiser HMAS Hobart (Capt. H.L. Howden, CBE, RAN), the British light cruisers HMS Dragon (Capt. R.J. Shaw, MBE, RN) and HMS Danae (Capt. F.J. Butler, MBE, RN) as well as the British destroyers HMS Scout (Lt.Cdr.(Retd.) H. Lambton, RN) and HMS Tenedos (Lt. R. Dyer, RN).

HMAS Hobart had been originally intended to join the Combined Striking Force but her fuelling was delayed owning to the tanker being damaged in an air attack and she was unable to sail with HMS Exeter and the destroyers in time and was left behind.

Orders for the Combined Stiking Force

Late in the afternoon of the 26th, Rear-Admiral Doorman, was in the operations room of the naval base at Surabaya when a signal was received from Vice-Admiral Helfrich which reported 30 enemy transports in position 04°50’S, 114°20’E, this was about 18 miles north-east of Surabaya. Enemy course was 245°, speed 10 knots. Two cruisers and four destroyers were reported to be escorting these transports. The Combined Striking Force was ordered to proceed to sea to attack the enemy after dark.

Rear-Admiral Doorman then considered to possible routes to make contact with the enemy convoy;
1) By a sweep east, along the north coast of Madura, followed by a sweep west, as far as Toeban.
2) By a sweep north, to the west of Bawean, continuing north-east wards towards the Arends Islands.

Later in the afternoon of February 26th, Rear-Admiral Doorman, called a conference of all his commanding officers, where the following decisions were taken;
1) The Combined Striking Force was to prevent, at all costs, a Japanese landing on Java or Madura.
2) The Japanese transports were to be attacked, preferably by night.
3) After the attack the Combined Trask Force was to proceed to Tandjong Priok (Batavia).
4) A formation for the night was ordered as follows; A screen of British and Dutch destroyers ahead, the five cruisers in line and four US destroyers in rear.

Also a plan for a night attack was made;
1) The British and Dutch destroyers were to carry out a torpedo attack as soon as the enemy was sighted and were to follow up their torpedo attack by an attempt to run straight into the enemy convoy and to cause as much damage as possible. The cruisers were to remain out of the convoy and were to fire on it. Finally the US destroyers were then to also make a torpedo attack.
2) If contact was made near the coast, special precautions were to be taken because Dutch mines had been laid off the north coast of Madura and also in the Toeban bight. After an attack in coastal waters the Allied ships therefore had to turn north.
3) After a possible night action the formation would be broken up and it was not considered possible to make definite plans for any subsequent action.

Departure from Surabaya.

The Combined Striking Force put to sea from Surabaya at 1830 hours. It had been decided to make a sweep to the east along the coast of Madura as far as the Sapoedi Strait and if the enemy were not sighted to sweep west and search the bight of Toeban. The Force sailed throught the western channel towards the Java Sea. The ships of the force were disposed in line ahead as follows;
1) Two Dutch destroyers, HrMs Witte de With and HrMs Kortenaer. This last ship had a speed limitation of 25 knots, due to one boiler being out of service.
2) Three British destroyers HMS Electra, HMS Encounter and HMS Jupiter.
3) The five Allied cruisers, HrMS de Ruyter, HMS Exeter, USS Houston, HMAS Perth and HrMs Java.
4) Four US destroyers, USS John D. Edwards, USS Alden, USS John D. Ford and USS Paul Jones.

Around the time the Combined Task Force sailed from Surabaya, US Army bombers found and attacked the enemy convoy in position 05°30’S, 113°00’E, which is about 25 miles north-east of Bawean Island. No report was however made to Rear-Admiral Doorman until nearly four hours later. And four hours after that another report was sent regarding this convoy. It is not known if Rear-Admiral Doorman actually received these reports.

At about 2200/26 the whole Combined Strike Force was clear of the Dutch minefields in the approaches to Surabaya and after proceeding 8 nautical miles to the north course was changed to the east, They were now in night formation and proceeding at 20 knots. They continued eastward as planned towards Sapoedi Strait as planned which they reached shortly after 0100/27. Rear-Admiral Doorman then altered course to 284° and maintained a westerly course throughout the remainder of the night.

Japanese air attack on the Combined Task Force.

At dawn on 27 February 1942, the Combined Task Force, was approximately 10 nautical miles north-west of Surabaya. They had not sighted the enemy during the night so day formation was assumed.

At 0700 hours, HMS Exeter, reported RDF contact on a group of aircraft in a south-westerly direction. Rear-Admiral Doorman hoped they were Allied aircraft but around 0800 hours he had to report to the ships in his force that the promised fighter cover would not be forthcoming. At 0855/27 aircraft were heard overhead and shortly afterwards three 100-lb bombs fell close to HMS Jupiter. Five minutes later a stick of four bombs fell about three cables on her starboard quarter. All these bombs were tumbling and at least three failed to explode. USS Houston opened fire on these aircraft which retreated behind clouds. From this time on, enemy aircraft continued to shadow the Allied force but they remained out of range.

Rear-Admiral Doorman reported this incident to Vice-Admiral Helfrich, and at 0930 hours he altered course from 270° to 115°. At 1000 hours, Vice-Admiral Helfrich signaled that Rear-Admiral Doorman had to proceed eastwards to search for and attack the enemy to which Rear-Admiral Doorman replied at 1200 hours with ‘proceeding eastwards after search from Sapoedi to Rembang. Success of action depends absolutely on receiving good reconnaissance information in time which last night failed me. Destroyers will have to refuel tomorrow.’

A Japanese force located.

At 1400/27 the Allied force was proceeding towards the Westervaarwater (northern entrance to Surabaya). The force passed through the swept channel in the minefields in the following order; the Dutch destroyers, the British destroyers, the US destroyers and then the cruisers. At 1427 hours the force was entering the harbour when Rear-Admiral Doorman received the following important information from Vice-Admiral Helfrich.
1) At 1340/27 (GH), Twenty ships with an unkown number of destroyers were in position 04.45’S, 112.15’E (approx. 65 miles north-west of Bawean), course 180°.
2) At 1345/27 (GH), one cruiser was reported in position 04°40’S, 111°07’E (approx.. 135 miles north-west of Bawean), course 220°.
3) At 1350/27 (GH), two cruisers, six destroyers and twenty-five transports were reported 20 miles west of Bawean, course south. Of this force one cruiser and four destroyers proceeded south at full speed The transports, one cruiser and two destroyers stayed behind.

The combined striking force proceeded to intercept.

Rear-Admiral Doorman immediately proceeded back to sea again with the intention to intercept the enemy force that was reported 20 miles west of Bawean. After leaving the minefield the British destroyers were ordered to proceed at full speed. The Dutch destroyers were on the port quarter of the cruiser line. The US destroyers were astern. Course was set to 315°, speed 20 knots but this was later increased to 25 knots, the maximum speed of HrMs Kortenaer.

At 1529 hours enemy aircraft appeared, they dropped a few bombs at random. USS Houston fired on the planes. Meanwhile the Allied force scrattered. By 1550 hours the force had reformed and was again on course 315°, speed was now 24 knots.

At 1600 hours, Rear-Admiral Doorman asked for fighter protection but the commander Air Defence Surabaya did not comply because he needed his eight remaining Brewster Buffalo fighters to protect the four dive-bombers in a projected dive-bombing attack on the Japanese transports.

Contact with the enemy.

Shortly after 1600/27, three float planes were sighted to the northward. Some minutes later smoke was sighted, bearing 358°. At 1612 hours, in approximate position 06°28’S, 112°26’E. The Combined Striking Force was still on course 315°. The first report, which came from HMS Electra was ‘one cruiser, unknown number of large destroyers, bearing 330°, speed 18 knots, enemy course 220°. At 1614 hours the Allied fleet, then about 30 miles north-west of Surabaya, increased speed to 26 knots and HMAS Perth reported seeing a cruiser on the starboard bow. At 1616 hours, HMS Exeter reported a cruiser and four destroyers bearing 330°, range 14 nautical miles.

At 1616 hours, the Japanese heavy cruisers Nachi and Haguro opened fire from 30000 yards. Their main targets were HMS Exeter and USS Houston. Around the same time the Japanese light cruiser Naka opened fire on the British destroyer HMS Electra which was immediately straddled. Later salvoes fell astern, short and over. She was not hit. HMS Electra and HMS Jupiter fired ranging salvoes at the western (leading) enemy force at a maximum range of 15700 yards but all fell short.

The Allied force was still on course 315° and closing the enemy when HrMs De Ruyter altered course 20° to port (to 295°) to bring the starboard broadsides to bear. This brought the Allied fleet on an almost parallel course with the enemy heavy cruisers. The Allied cruisers were still in line ahead with HMS Electra and HMS Jupiter bearing 280°, four nautical miles from HrMs De Ruyter. The US destroyers were astern of the cruiser line and the two Dutch destroyers were about two nautical miles to port of the cruiser line. The position of HMS Encounter at that moment is not mentioned in any of the reports but she appeared to have been ahead of the Dutch destoyers and abeam of HMAS Perth.

HMS Exeter opened fire at 1617 hours followed by USS Houston one minute later. Range was 26000 to 28000 yards. This range was maintained for some time so the enemy was only under fire from the two heavy cruisers in the Allied cruiser line. Shortly after the action commenced the US destroyers took station about 3000 yards on the disengaged side of HrMs Java and maintained this relative position throughout most of the action. Enemy salvoes almost continuously straddled HrMs De Ruyter and HMS Exeter. All the time three float planes were spotting for the enemy.

First Japanese torpedo attack, 1633 to 1652 hours.

At about 1625 hours, the rear enemy destroyer flotilla appeared from the Allied line to prepare to attack. HMAS Perth opened fire on the right-hand destroyer (this was the Asagumo. She was hit by the second salvo just before she launched torpedoes. Her steering was affected and she was able to fire only three torpedoes.

The first enemy torpedo attack was a coordinated attack made by the two heavy cruisers, two flotilla leaders (light cruiser) and the six destroyers from the 4th destroyer flotilla. As the attack was developing, the Allied fleet, at 1629 hours, altered course from 295° to 248°, speed 25 knots and at 1631 hours, HrMs De Ruyter was hit in the auxiliary motor room on the starboard side by an 8” shell. A petrol fire was started but it was quickly extinguished. One of the crew was killed and six were wounded.

The enemy account of the torpedo attack is as follows; About 18 minutes after starting the gun engagement, the Naka followed by the Jintsu fired torpedoes. The 9th and 2nd destroyer flotilla’s then fired in succession. About 40 minutes after the start of the engagement the Haguro fired torpedoes. The Nachi also intended to fire torpedoes but due to a failure in drill did not do so. In 19 minutes, 43 torpedoes were fired at the Allied ships but none hit.

The Japanese 4th destroyer flotilla made smoke immediately following after the torpedo attack, and after the Perth’s second salvo hit, retired behind the smoke, which also concealed the enemy heavy cruisers from view. The Perth fired several follow up salvoes into the smoke screen which became so dense that the Japanese temporarily lost sight of the Allied fleet. The Electra and Jupiter had by this time closed the US destroyers and took op a position abeam the cruiser line on the disengaged side.

At 1635 hours, HrMs De Ruyter led in again towards the enemy on course 267°. Also about this time the rear enemy heavy cruiser, the Haguro was hit, apparently in the boiler room, as she emitted billowing clouds of black smoke, though continuing to fire her guns.

As the enemy smoke screen cleared, a Japanese destroyer was seen to be on fire. This may have been the Minegumo. By then the Nachi was firing at HMS Exeter and the Haguro at the and HMAS Perth.

Allied air attack

Around 1645 hours, splashes of heavy bombs were seen near the enemy ships, though no hits were observed. The Nachi and Haguro were still in line ahead about half a mile apart at a range of over 26000 yards. At this range they could only be engaged by the two Allied heavy cruisers. At this time the Haguro was seen to be on fire.

Second Japanese torpedo attack, 1700 to 1714 hours.

Shortly after 1700 hours, the Japanese delivered a second torpedo attack. It was made by the two heavy cruisers, the flotilla leader (light cruiser) Jintsu and six of the eight destroyers from the 2nd destroyer flotilla.

Between 1700 and 1706 hours, the enemy heavy cruisers commenced, unobserved by the Allied ships, a second torpedo attack. At 1707 hours, the foremost enemy destroyer flotilla, the 2nd, led by the Jintsu was seen to launch a long range torpedo attack and the Allied cruisers turned away to avoid the torpedoes and no torpedoes hit.

HMS Exeter hit by enemy gunfire

The Allied cruisers had ceased firing at 1707 hours, when they had turned away to avoid the torpedoes. The enemy was still firing but his shots fell short but at 1708 hours HMS Exeter was hit by an 8” shell from the Nachi and her speed rapidly decreased. She turned away to port, hauling out of the line and the cruisers astern of her turned with her. HrMs De Ruyter continued on her course for a short time but then turned to port as well. The Dutch and US destroyers also turned to port thus taking up a position ahead of the cruisers. The new mean course of the fleet then was about 180°.

As a result of this manoeuvre the Allied fleet was in disorder. At 1714 hours, HMS Exeter came to a stop and signaled that she had been hit in the boiler rooms.

HrMs Kortenaer torpedoed.

By this time the torpedoes that had been fired during the second Japanese torpedo attack reached the area the Allied ships were in and at 1715 hours, the Dutch destroyer HrMs Kortenaer was hit and blew up in approximate position 06°25’S, 112°08’E. She was hit amidships on the starboard side and broke in two. The forepart remained afloat for about five minutes but the stern part sank immediately. Five hours later HMS Encounter came across survivors and picked up 113 of them from the water and took them to Surabaya following the battle.

Also at 1715 hours, a torpedo track passed closely by HMS Jupiter and a moment later one was seen to pass astern of HMS Exeter. The US destroyers John D. Ford and John D. Edwards both had to use helm to avoid torpedoes.

HMS Exeter ordered to Surabaya.

Shortly after having come to a halt, HMS Exeter was underway again but her speed was limited to 15 knots. Rear-Admiral Doorman ordered her to proceed to Surabaya at 1740 hours and ordered the sole remaining Dutch destroyer HrMs Witte de With to escort her to there. HMAS Perth had also closed the Exeter and covered her with smoke from her funnel and smoke floats. She soon however rejoined the cruiser line when Rear-Admiral Doorman signaled ‘All ships follow me’.

The Allied fleet reforms.

At 1720 hours, in accordance with the above mentioned signal, and under cover of smoke which the US destroyers had started to lay, the De Ruyter proceeded on a course to the south-east. Altering almost immediately to north-east, at 1725 hours, the De Ruyter led the Allied cruisers between the enemy and the Exeter presumably to cover the latter and draw the enemy’s fire, for that in effect was the result of the manoeuvre. About this time an air attack developed and bombs fell 1000 yards to port of the US destroyers and two more sticks of bombs were dropped near them a few minutes later. No damage was caused by these air attacks. The Allied cruisers then proceeded on a course to the east.

British destroyers attack the enemy, 1725 hours and subsequent sinking of HMS Electra.

It was just about 1725 hours when Rear-Admiral Doorman signaled ‘British destroyers counter-attack’, whereupon Cdr. May, RN in the Electra ordered the Jupiter and the Encounter to follow. Circumstances were not favourable, for the smoke was very thick, and visibility over the battle area was not more then half a mile. Moreover, as the British destroyers were too far apart to make a divisional attack they attacked independently. The Encounter attacked through a clearing in the smoke. It is not known if she fired torpedoes or not. The Jupiter found no suitable target for torpedoes and therefore remained in the vicinity of HMS Exeter. She was able to drive off two enemy destroyers with gunfire near her which had come out of the smoke screen with the intention of making a torpedo attack on the Exeter. When the Encounter retired from her attack she was ordered to take up a position astern of HMS Jupiter and both destroyers remained near the Exeter as a covering force. The Dutch destroyer HrMs Witte de With was also near the damaged Exeter, she exchanged gunfire with an enemy destroyer around 1745 hours at a range of 9300 yards. The enemy replied and both ships fired around eight or nine rounds. The enemy was thought to have been hit twice. The Witte de With was hit once but the only damage sustained was that it destroyed her aerial. HMS Exeter and HrMs Witte de With arrived off the Surabaya defensive minefields at 2000/27.

Meanwhile HMS Electra had attacked through the smoke astern of the Exeter. As she cleared the smoke a formation of three enemy destroyers from the 4th Destroyer Flotilla was sighted on an opposite course entering the smoke at a range of 6000 yards. HMS Electra immediately engaged them and claimed hits with four salvoes on the leading ship. She did not fire torpedoes. As the three enemy destroyers disappeared into the smoke a shell hit the Electra Two of these enemy destroyers went on through the smoke to attack the Exeter with torpedoes and must have been the ships driven off later by HMS Jupiter. The third destroyer returned to engage the Electra which had been hit on the port side in No.2 boiler room. This hit brought the Electra to a stop. When the enemy destroyer came put of the smoke she was immediately engaged b all 4.7” guns in local control as communication with the bridge was dead. The enemy hit the Electra with it’s second salvo silencing the Electra’s guns one by one and causing a fire forward and a list to port. With only ‘Y’ gun still firing the order was given to abandon ship. The enemy continued to fire and closed so that he could use his machine guns. The Electra listed heavily to port and started to settle by the bows. She then turned over and started to sink slowly until about only 6 feet of her quarter deck was out of the water. She finally sank completely around 1800 hours. At 0315/28, 54 survivors were picked up out of the water by the US submarine S 38. One of these survivors subsequently died aboard the submarine.

Allied fleet reformed and a third Japanese torpedo attack.

By 1745/27 the Allied cruisers, less HMS Exeter, had reformed in single line ahead in the order HrMs De Ruyter, HMAS Perth, USS Houston and HrMs Java and had emerged from the smoke screen on an opposite course to the Nachi and Haguro which were about 19500 yards distant.

Also in sight, having emerged from the north-west out of the smoke, on approximately a parallel course, was the Naka leading five destroyers from the 4th Destroyer Flotilla. At 1750 hours the retiring HMS Exeter fired a salvo at the Naka. At 1752 hours the five enemy destroyers were seen to move in for a torpedo attack. HMAS Perth opened fire on them as they came into view in gaps -through the smoke. They returned the gunfire and then retired through the smoke. They had fired 24 torpedoes but all missed the Allied ships.

Around this time Rear-Admiral Doorman signaled to Vice-Admiral Helfrich that HrMs Kortenaer had been sunk and that HMS Exeter was damaged and ordered to return to Surabaya under escort by HrMs Witte de With. That the fight with the Japanese was ongoing and that his position was 06°15’S, 112°17’E.

US destroyers attack.

About 1758 hours, when the Allied fleet was on course 190°, Rear-Admiral Doorman ordered the four US destroyers to counter-attack but almost immediately this ordered was cancelled and ordered the US destroyers to make smoke. While the US destroyers were doing so Rear-Admiral Doorman altered course to 090° and then signaled to the US destroyers ‘cover my retirement’. When they received this order the four US destroyers were between the Allied cruiser line and the enemy. It was getting dark and visibility was now 15 nautical miles. Commander Binford, the commander of the 58th Destroyer Division decided that the most effective way to do so was a torpedo attack. Thereupon the US destroyers altered course to starboard, in order to break clear of the smoke that they had just laid. The enemy heavy cruisers were about 20000 yards away to the north-west on a westerly course. The US destroyers closed the range to about 14000 yards and then fired their starboard torpedoes at 1814 hours. The destroyers then turned around and fired their port torpedoes five minutes later. The enemy heavy cruisers were seen to turn to the north shortly afterwards.

At 1831 hours Rear-Admiral Doorman signaled to the US destroyers ‘follow me’. The US destroyers then turned under the cover of smoke, crossed under the stern of the Allied cruiser column and took up a position on its disengaged quarter on a course between east and north-east. Commander Binford then reported to Rear-Admiral Doorman that all his destroyers torpedoes had been fired.

Around 1815 hours gunfire between the Allied cruisers and the Japanese heavy cruisers was again exchanged. It was around this time that a hit was observed on the Haguro. Shortly afterwards the enemy heavy cruisers were seen to retire westwards. This information was signaled to Vice-Admiral Helfrich. Rear-Admiral Doorman also requested information about the position of the enemy convoy of transports.

The enemy was now no longer in sight and Rear-Admiral Doorman led his force to the north-east presumably to work round the enemy escort and find the enemy convoy of transports. Speed was set to 22 knots.

By 1856 hours, the Allied fleet was on course 290° altering gradually to the north. It was a bright moonlight night.

Night action, 1927 hours.

After dark, the enemy force was augumented by two other heavy cruisers, the Mogami and Mikuma. Also the light cruiser Natori leading three destroyers of the 5th Destroyer Flotilla. The Naka and the 4th Destroyer Flotilla appears the have retired from the battle area.

At 1927 hours the Allies sighted four ships on the port beam. These were the light cruiser Jintsu and three destroyers of the 2nd Destroyer Flotilla. About the same time an enemy aircraft dropped a flare on the disengaged side of the Allied ships. Both British destroyers (HMS Jupiter and HMS Encounter) were now ahead of the cruiser line.

Fourth Japanese torpedo attack, 1936 hours.

Shortly afterwards the Japanese launched yet another torpedo attack. At 1933 hours, HMAS Perth opened fire on them with her main armament. He then fired starshell but these fell short. USS Houston also opened fire. At 1936 hours a row of explosions was seen on one of the enemy’s ships which were thought to be torpedoes being launched and HMAS Perth turned away to evade and the other ships followed. Japanese records confirmed that at this time the Jintsu indeed fired torpedoes and that the turn by HMAS Perth most likely saved Allied ships from being hit.

The Allied cruiser then again formed up in line ahead and were lead on various course by HrMs De Ruyter to intercept the enemy. Around 1945 hours the course of the Allied fleet was 170°.

Night action, 2000 hours.

The Allied cruisers continued on course 170° and at 2000 hours, Rear-Admiral Doorman, evidently unaware that HMS Electra had been sunk signalled to her, HMS Jupiter and HMS Encounter, ‘Report your position, course and speed’. At 2023 hours, what appeared to be four enemy destroyers were observed on the port bow attempting a torpedo attack and the Allied cruisers altered course to port. At 2043 hours it was again thought that destroyers had delivered another torpedo attack, this time from starboard and course was altered to 175°. Neither time torpedoes or their tracks were observed and Japanese records does not mention torpedoes being fired by destroyers around this time. Around 2100 hours the Allied ships turned west to a course of about 280°.

Shortly after 2100 hours, the US destroyer, now out of torpedoes and with fuel getting low retired towards Surabaya. They were off Surabaya when they received a signal from Admiral Doorman that they were to proceed to Batavia to fuel and receive orders where to obtain new torpedoes. Course was then set for Batavia. Off Surbaya they had ben joined by the USS Pope which had been repairing there. However it was soon decided that it would be impossible to proceed to Batavia and the five destroyers entered Sourabaya instead.

After the departure of the US destroyers the remaining ships of the Allied fleet proceeded westwards along the north coast of Java. They were in single column in the order HMS Encounter, HrMs De Ruyter, HMAS Perth, USS Houston, HrMs Java and HMS Jupiter.

HMS Jupiter sunk, 2125 hours.

At 2125 hours HMS Jupiter is reported to have been torpedoed in position 06°45.2’S, 112°05.5’E. She stopped immediately and sank in 8 fathoms of water at 0130/28 approximately in the position she was hit. The explosion killed twelve ratings and wounded seven of whom two subsequently died. Five officers and seventy-eight rating managed to land on the coast of Java. The ships Commanding Officer, one other officer and ninety-five ratings were captured by the Japanese. Four officers and sixty-six ratings were missing.

It is now known that HMS Jupiter was not hit by a torpedo but hit a mine of a Dutch minefield.

After the Jupiter had been mined the fleet proceeded more or less northwards. They were shadowed by enemy aircraft which dropped flares every time the Allied ships went on a new course.

Around this time the sole remaining destroyer, HMS Encounter lost contact with the Allied cruisers. She later, around 2330 hours, picked up 113 survivors from the water from the Dutch destroyer HrMs Kortenaer that had been torpedoed earlier in the battle. HMS Encounter then proceeded towards the west to make for Batavia but this was soon changed for Surabaya.

Fifth Japanese torpedo attack, 2245 hours.

Contact was now made again with the Japanese heavy cruisers Nachi and Haguro. These ships had not been seen after 1830 hours but the Japanese were apparently well aware of the position of the Allied ships and had been laying an ambush. Fire was now opened from both sides. Unknown to the Allies the Japanese had already launched their deadly torpedoes against the Allied cruiser line. The De Ruyter was hit by an enemy shell on the quarter deck and turned away. HMAS Perth followed as her Commanding Officer thought that the flagship was turning away to avoid torpedoes that she might have sighted. While the Allied cruiser line was halfway through the turn, at 2250 hours, the whole after part of HrMs Java, the last cruiser in the line, was seen the blew up and she stopped, heavily on fire. Shortly afterwards HrMs De Ruyter also blew up with an appalling explosion and settled aft, also heavily on fire. The two Dutch light cruisers had been torpedoed by the Japanese 5th Cruiser Division. HMAS Perth just managed to avoid the heavily damaged De Ruyter. USS Houston hauled out to starboard. The crew of the De Ruyter was seen to assemble forwards as the after part of the ship, as far as the catapult was a mass of flames. Ammunition began to explode and the ship had to be abandoned and she sank in a few minutes. The position in which the Dutch cruisers were hit was approximately 06°11’S, 112°08’E.

HMAS Perth now took the USS Houston under her orders and both cruisers now turned for Batavia, some 300 nautical miles distant, at high speed. Both cruisers were running low on ammunition. The Perth reported the sinking of both Dutch cruisers by W/T. From Surabaya the Dutch sent out the hospital ship Op ten Noord to sea to search for survivors. The Japanese however soon intercepted this ship and captured her.

After the battle.

HMAS Perth and USS Houston arrived at Batavia at 1400/28 and quickly commenced fuelling. They left at 2120 hours to try to escape through the Sunda Strait. The Dutch destroyer HrMs Evertsen was ordered to sail with them but was not ready in time and sailed about two hours later. Around midnight the Evertsen reported a sea battle going on in the Sunda Strait. Shortly afterwards she reported that she herself had been intercepted by the Japanese as well and that she had beached herself off the south coast of Sumatra.

The sea battle reported by the Evertsen was between the Perth and the Houston that had come across a Japanese landing force that were landing troops on the coast of Java in the Sunda Straits. The Allied cruisers had no chance against the Japanese forces and were soon sunk after being hit by multiple torpedoes each.

In the evening of 28 February 1942, the damaged British heavy cruiser HMS Exeter and two destroyers, the British HMS Encounter and the American USS Pope departed Surabaya to try to escape to Colombo through the Sunda Strait. After they cleared harbour they proceeded to the east along the coast of Madura for about 20 miles and then they proceeded northwards passing to the east of Bawean Island. They were then to steer north-east before making a run for the Sunda Strait. Soon after leaving Surabaya though the ships were discovered by a Japanese reconnaissance aircraft. At about 1000 hours on March 1st, HMS Exeter reported that three enemy heavy cruisers were approaching her. In fact four of them were closing her to finish her off. After about 1,5 hours the Exeter had been hit many times. She was then finished off by a torpedo from the Japanese destroyer Inazuma. HMS Encounter was also sunk by gunfire while USS Pope was brought to a stop by damage received from aircraft bomb near misses.

The only ships that had participated in the Battle of the Java Sea that managed to escape were the four US destroyer. The USS John D. Edwards, USS John D. Ford, USS Alden and USS Paul Jones left Surabaya in the late afternoon of the 28th. They went out through Madura Strait and the proceeded to the Indian Ocean though the Bali Strait. They encountered and were engaged by patrolling Japanese destroyers but managed to escape. They arrived safely at Fremantle, Australia in the afternoon of March 4th.

Two Dutch destroyers at Surabaya, HrMs Witte de With and HrMs Banckert were damaged and unable to escape. Both were scuttled by their crews.

Japanese ships involved in the battle..

In late February 1942 the Japanese set in motion movements to land troops on the island of Java, the main island of the Dutch colony of the Dutch East Indies. two landing forces went to sea, the Western invasion force and the eastern invasion force.

The western invasion force was made up of 56 transports. These ships were escorted by the 5th Japanese Destroyer Flotilla. This was made up of the light cruiser Natori (Flotilla leader) and the destroyers Asakaze, Harukaze, Hatakaze, Matsukaze (5th Destroyer Division), Satsuki, Minazuki, Fumizuki, Nagatsuki (22th Destroyer Division) and the 3th Japanese Destroyer Flotilla which was made up of the Japanese light cruiser Sendai (Flotilla leader) and the destroyers Fubuki, Hatsuyuki and Shirayuki (11th Destroyer Division), Murakumo and Shirakumo (12th Destroyer Division). Furter ships that were part of the escort force were the light cruiser Yura, the minelayer Shirataka, mineweepers W-1, W-2, W-3 and W-4 and several submarine chasers.

Cover for the western invasion force was provided by the 7th Cruiser Squadron (Rear Admiral Kurita) which was made up of the heavy cruisers Kumano, Mikuma, Mogami, Suzuya and the destroyers Isonami, Shikinami and Uranami (19th Destroyer Division). Air cover was provided by the aircraft carrier Ryujo, seaplane tender Chiyoda, auxiliary seaplane tender Kamikawa Maru and the destroyers Amagiri, Asagiri and Yugiri (20th Destroyer Division).

The eastern invasion force was made up of 41 transports. These ships were escorted by the 4th Japanese Desroyer Flotilla. This was made up of the light cruiser Naka (Flotilla leader) and the destroyers Asagumo, Minegumo, Natsugumo (9th Destroyer Division), Murasame, Harusame, Samidare, Yudachi (2nd Destroyer Division) and the Umikaze. The light cruiser Jintsu (Flotilla leader), destroyers Yukikaze, Tokitsukaze, Amatsukaze and Hatsukaze (16th Destroyer Division). Further ships that were part of the escort force were the light cruiser Kinu, minelayer Wakataka, minesweepers W 15 and W 16, submarine chasers Ch-4, Ch-5, Ch-6, Ch-16, Ch-17 and Ch-18.

Cover for the eastern invasion force was provided by the 5th Cruiser Squadron (Rear Admiral Takagi) with the heavy cruisers Nachi and Haguro and the destroyers Sazanami, Ushio, Kawakaze and Yamakaze. The 16th Cruiser Squadron with the heavy cruisers Ashigara and Myoko and the destroyers Akebono and Inazuma. Air cover was provided by land based aircraft and the seaplane tender Mizuho and the auxiliary seaplane tender Sanyo Maru.

South of Java operated the Japanese 1st Carrier fleet that had left Kendari (Celebes) and proceeded south through Stait Sape. This force consisted of the aircraft carriers Akagi, Kaga, Hiryu, Soryu, battlecruisers Kongo, Haruna, Hiei, Kirishima, heavy cruisers Chikuma, Tone, Atago, Maya, Takao, light cruiser Abukuma, destroyers Tanikaze, Isokaze, Hamakaze, Urakaze (17th Destroyer Division), Shiranuhi, Kasumi, Airake, Yugure (18th Destroyer Division), Arashi, Hayashio and Nowaki (4th Destroyer Division). (21)

28 Feb 1942

The sinking of HMS Exeter, HMS Encounter and USS Pope.

Sailing of these ships from Surabaya and course to follow.

Following the lost battle of the Java Sea Surabaya was evacuated. The damaged British heavy cruiser HMS Exeter (Capt. O.L. Gordon, MVO, RN), the British destroyer HMS Encounter (Lt.Cdr. E.V.St J. Morgan, RN) and the US destroyer USS Pope (Lt.Cdr. W.C. Blinn, USN) departed Surabaya at 1900/28 with orders to proceed to the east for 20 nautical miles, then to proceed northwards to pass to the east of Bawean Island and then to proceed to the north-west an finally to the west to try to escape to Colombo via the Sunda Strait.

The mission actually hopeless, HMS Exeter, in her damaged condition could make no more then 16 knots when she sailed from Surabaya. Repairs however were under way and while at sea speed could eventually be increased to 23 knots. The other two ships were also in need of repairs and were not 100% fit for battle. USS Pope had been unable to take part in the Battle of the Java Sea as she had been repairing at Surabaya. Besides the ships themselves their crews were also suffering from fatigue due the immense strain they had been under the past weeks. The Dutch destroyer HrMs Witte de With (Lt.Cdr. P. Schotel, RNN) was to have sailed with these ships ass well to try to escape but she remained behind with either damage to her propellers and / or an incomplete crew (shore leave had been granted, sources vary on this) and was eventually scuttled to prevent her capture by the Japanese.

The first part of the night of 28 February / 1 MArch was uneventful. The two destroyers had taken up screening positions and shortly before midnight steam was available to two more boilers in HMS Exeter and speed was increased in steps to 23 knots, which was the maximum speed that could be obtained with the four boilers now operational.

Japanese forces deployed to intercept the Allied ships trying to escape.

Unknown to the Allies at this time was that the ships had already been spotted by Japanese aircraft shortly after they had left the harbour and the Japanese deployed their forces in the eastern part of the Java Sea to intercept them.

These forces were split into two groups. One group was made up of the heavy cruisers Nachi and Haguro with the destroyers Kawakaze and Yamakaze. The other group was made up of the heavy cruisers Ashigara and Myoko and the destroyers Akebono and Inazuma.

Movements of the Allied ships during the night.

Shortly before midnight the Allied ships changed course to due north to pass to the east of Bawean Island as ordered. Speed was now 23 knots, the maximum speed of HMS Exeter. At 0200 hours, course was altered to 345 degrees.

It had been intended to alter course to 290 degrees at 0400/1 but shortly before this three ships, two large and one smaller were sighted to the westward in the light of the setting moon. Range to these ships was about 10 nautical miles. They were steering to the south-south-west and were thought to be two transports escorted by a cruiser or a destroyer. They were evaded as the ships had orders to try to escape to Colombo. The Allied ships therefore turned stern on to avoid being sighted. They then worked round to the northward and resumed their course of 345 degrees at about 0430 hours.

Around 0600 hours course was altered to 290 degrees and one hour later to 280 degrees. No enemy aircraft nor ships were seen at daybreak and visibility was extreme.

Enemy ships sighted.

At about 0750 hours the lookout in the crow's nest on board HMS Exeter reported sighting two ships nearly right ahead. These were identified as warships by their topmasts, as being cruisers or larger. The enemy ships were steering to the north-north-east. Course was immediately altered to try to evade and it was though possible that with the advantage of the light HMS Exeter had not been sighted. This hope was however short lived as the enemy ships were soon seen to turn towards though they were still well hull down.

An enemy report was therefore made. However the ememy soon resumed their original course and were out of sight shortly afterwards. Their turn towards was perhaps only for flying off operations to launch their aircraft to conduct a search.

The Allied ships worked gradually to the southward and westward eventually steering 260 degrees.

More enemy warships sighted.

It was not until about 0935 hours that the topmasts of two enemy heavy cruisers were sighted bearing about 170 degrees, steering to the westward. Course was immediately altered to 320 degrees to try to evade but these cruisers were also seen to turn towards. Very shortly afterwards an enemy destroyer was seen ahead steering towards. This destroyer was then engaged with gunfire at ranges between 20000 and 14000 yards. The destroyer eventually turned away to the westward under the cover of smoke.

Shortly afterwards two more Japanese heavy cruisers were sighted bearing approximately 330 degrees. These also turned towards at once. The Allied ships immediately altered course to the east.

On board the Exeter the ships engine room staff meanwhile had managed to repair another boiler and speed was increased around 1055 hours to 26 knots.

Enemy ships open fire.

The enemy cruisers to the north-west were the first to open fire from long range. Their fire was immediately returned by HMS Exeter. Also another enemy report was made.

Due to a malfunction in the fire control table all salvoes fired by HMS Exeter missed the enemy ships.

One pair of the enemy cruisers were approximately abeam to starboard and the other pair were on the port quarter. They closed gradually until the range was about 18000 yards.

About the time the enemy cruisers found the range, USS Pope made smoke without having received the order to do so. HMS Encounter followed suit and the resulting smoke screen proved effective. Targets were engaged by HMS Exeter whenever these were sighted through the smoke but it was seldom to fire more then four or five salvoes at a time.

At about 1100 hours, HMS Exeter fire her port tubes at he enemy cruisers on her port quarter. The enemy took avoiding action and no hits were obtained. HMS Encounter could not make a torpedo attack, she had none on board having fired all her torpedoes during the Battle of the Java Sea.

Around this time all the Allied ships also engaged Japanese destroyers with gunfire. HMS Exeter claims to have damaged one of them.

During the action the enemy had spotter aircraft overhead the Allied ships. These were engaged with AA fire whenever possible.

HMS Exeter hit and sunk.

Around 1120 hours, HMS Exeter received a vital hit in 'A' boiler room which started a large fire and the boiler room had to be evacuated. Steam pressure dropped rapidly and in the end the main engines had to be stopped. All power failed in the ship shortly afterwards, and with it the whole main armament and also the secondary armamant control.

As HMS Exeter was loosing way, HMS Encounter and USS Pope drew ahead. The enemy fire now became very effective on the almost stationary Exeter which was repeatidly straddled and hit.

Abandon ship was ordered at 1135 hours. This order was carried out in an orderly manner. HMS Exeter sank around 1150 hours.

Sinking of HMS Encounter.

Soon after HMS Exeter was brought to a halt, HMS Encounter also had to stop due to damage received in the engine rooms by splinters. HMS Encounter then tried to hide in her own smoke screen but the enemy ships soon found the range and soon all her guns, except 'B' gun, were out of action due to hits received.

Being stopped, with almost all her main armament out of action and without torpedoes, abandon ship was then ordered and HMS Encounter sank at 1210 hours.

Action continued by the sole remaining Allied ship, USS Pope.

USS Pope temporary managed to escape from the Japanese warships hiding in rain squalls. Eventually she was found and disabled and brought to a halt by damage received from aircraft from the Japanese aircraft carrier Ryujo.She was finally sunk by gunfire around 1440 hours from the Ashigara and the Myoko. (22)

Sources

  1. ADM 53/114251
  2. ADM 53/114251 + ADM 199/655
  3. ADM 53/114252
  4. ADM 53/114253
  5. ADM 53/114254
  6. ADM 53/114255
  7. ADM 53/114255 + ADM 199/408
  8. ADM 53/114256
  9. ADM 53/114257
  10. ADM 53/114258
  11. ADM 53/114258 + ADM 199/410
  12. ADM 53/114259
  13. ADM 53/114259 + ADM 199/408
  14. ADM 53/114260
  15. ADM 53/114260 + ADM 199/408
  16. ADM 199/426
  17. ADM 199/2553
  18. ADM 199/426 + ADM 199/1185
  19. ADM 199/1185
  20. ADM 199/1185 + ADM 234/346
  21. ADM 234/346
  22. ADM 267/84

ADM numbers indicate documents at the British National Archives at Kew, London.


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